Monthly Archives: September 2013

Voyager’s Incredible… Uh… Voyage: Saturn & Beyond

Hello folks.

Last week, we were talking about the Voyager 1 spacecraft & its long trip around the universe. We looked at its stop at the Jupiter system, which is made of the Solar System’s most massive planet & the 60+ moons which circle it. We spoke about the moons Europa & Io & what makes them so unique & important to our solar system.  So, let’s continue.

It took almost two years for Voyager 1 to travel to Saturn and its moons. On November 12, 1980, it arrived. It wasn’t the first to get there; those were the Pioneer probes.

Both Voyagers were vastly superior to Pioneer in many ways, but the most specific thing that set Voyager apart from the Pioneer  probes was the ability to take  high resolution photos. Most of the images taken by Voyager wouldn’t be considered high resolution by today’s standards, but for 1980, the difference was night & day. Take a look at these two photos.


Saturn & its moons as photographed by Voyager 1.
(Photo courtesy of NASA)


Saturn & its moons, as photographed by Pioneer 11.
(Photo used courtesy of NASA)

As you can see, the photograph taken by Voyager 1 has much more detail. This allowed scientists to scrutinize photos with ease, & lead to a number of new discoveries.

One of the most important things scientists used the new photos to study was the ring system. They came across a surprising find.  If you take a look at the image above, you’ll see that the rings are split up into many different sections, as opposed to just two or three.  Voyager also concluded that the rings change over time.

Saturn has many moons. It has 150, to be exact & 53 which are big enough to be named (including one that might actually be the Death Star). I’m only going to touch upon two of the most important, but you can read about all 53 named moons here.

On August 22, 1980, Voyager 1 flew by Enceladus (My spell check is trying to make me change it to enchiladas, but I’m not going to listen), which orbits within Saturn’s E ring. The reason Enceladus is so interesting is because of its similarity to Jupiter’s moon, Europa. It’s made of ice & the images taken by Voyager, lead scientists to believe that instead of under-crust oceans, there are pools of water, which erupt as geysers. The geysers have since been confirmed by NASA’s Cassini, which in turn confirms interior heating.  Because of this, as with Europa, Enceladus is decent a candidate for microbial life.


Voyager image of Enceladus. Note the stretch marks like Jupiter’s moon, Europa.
(Photo courtesy of NASA)

Now to Titan. Before they could even start the Saturn phase, the flight controllers had to meet with the scientists in order to make one big decision. Choice A skiping the flyby of Titan & after exploring the other large moons of Saturn,  using the planet’s immense gravity to slingshot the craft to the outer reaches of the Solar System. It would then be on a path to make close flybys of Uranus, Neptune & Pluto. Choice B was to include Titan in the flybys. However, sending Voyager to Titan would place the craft onto a trajectory which would make it miss the other gas planets & Pluto. While it would have been cool to go see Pluto, the investigation of Titan was deemed scientifically more important.  Here’s why:

The spacecraft Pioneer 11  had reached Saturn the year before Voyager 1. During its flyby, the probe detected that Titan had unusually thick atmosphere for something the size of a natural satellite. Scientists wanted to find out what types of gasses made up Titan’s atmosphere, so Voyager was sent to find out.

It turned out that Titan’s atmosphere was not only extraordinarily thick (about 1.2 times the mass of Earth’s), but hazy. Voyager 1 discovered that the yellow haze was because the atmosphere was full of organic matter, nitrogen & methane (In 2004, the Cassini probe would discover methane rain & lakes). The condition of the atmosphere on Titan is apparently very similar to Earth’s when it was very young,  so Titan became a tool used to study what the early Earth was like.


Titan’s limb, as snapped by Voyager 1. Note the haze & the blue of the outer atmosphere.
(Photo courtesy of NASA & the Jet Propulsion Laboratory)

On December 14, 1980, Voyager 1 said, “Goodbye,” to Saturn & started its extended phase of its life. Since passing Titan meant that it wouldn’t see any of the other planets. It reached the Solar System’s escape velocity, or velocity it needs to get to so it won’t slow & fall back towards the Sun. This means, we’re not getting it back. The spacecraft was now on its way to explore the rest of the Universe.

Almost ten years went by before anything significant happened (Yes, space is that big), but on February 14, 1990, Voyager 1 turned to take a quick photo. It has since been nicknamed “The Family Portrait” & it’s the first picture of all 8 planets together. Included in the photo is a little speck, which was dubbed by Carl Sagan as “The Pale Blue Dot”.  Check out the image because it’s quite moving. If you have a hard time seeing it, click on it to make it bigger. The speck is circled for you, so you can find it.


The Pale Blue Dot as taken by
Voyager 1
(Photo Courtesy of NASA & the Jet Propulsion Laboratory)

That tiny blue speck you’re looking at is Earth. In his book, Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space, this is what Sagan has to say about it:

Consider again that dot. That’s here. That’s home. That’s us. On it, everyone you love, everyone you know, everyone you ever heard of, every human being who ever was, lived out their lives. The aggregate of our joy and suffering, thousands of confident religions, ideologies, and economic doctrines, every hunter and forager, every hero and coward, every creator and destroyer of civilization, every king and peasant, every young couple in love…  in the history of our species lived there… – on a mote of dust suspended in a sunbeam.
-Carl Sagan, Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space, 1997 reprint, pp. xv–xvi

This absurdly beautiful quotation really puts things into perspective, doesn’t it? You can read the entire passage here.

Eight years later, Voyager 1 overtook Pioneer 11 as the most distant object from earth, then a whole lot more nothing- well, nothing to which the general public would give their attention. However, during these long periods of travel, the JPL scientists took measurements of temperature, solar particles & cosmic rays. All this time, they continually searched for the heliopause, or the area where the solar wind is overpowered by the interstellar medium.


Distance & velocity of Voyager 1 as of February, 2012. Yes, that’s almost 20 BILLION kilometers.
(Photo Courtesy of NASA)

Between 1998 & 2012, scientists announced different landmarks for Voyager 1, such as entering the heliosheath (the area in which the solar winds slow to sub sonic speeds), which were largely misunderstood by the media. Each time NASA made an announcement, at least one magazine or news company reported that Voyager exited the solar system. This is why you heard the same news report over & over.

It wasn’t until July 14, 2014, that the craft actually entered the heliopause & not until August 25 of the same year that it fully crossed it. NASA took a year to comb through the data before officially releasing it to the public. They wanted to make sure they released correct information, in order to avoid any more media confusion. Voyager 1 was officially the first man made object to exit the solar system. Let’s face it, it’s a pretty big announcement.

So, for now, Voyager is going to keep going & going… & going. Assuming it doesn’t smash into something or get picked up by some other civilization, it’ll keep on going forever, as a messenger from mankind. All we can do is keep watching & listening until the transmitters die. Until then, now that it’s in interstellar space, it will most definitely teach us new things about the Universe ever day.

Well, now you know; you’re welcome. Thanks for listening to my space nerdiness.

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Stealing Thunder: Giving Credit Where it Isn’t Due

Now, here’s another installment of Bill’s Bologna:

We all know that stealing someone’s thunder means taking credit for something that isn’t yours or taking the spotlight away from someone, but  stealing someone’s spotlight is very different from the sound of air expanding very rapidly around a bolt of – never mind. So where did this phrase come from?

I just happen to have the answer:

In the early to mid 18th century a playright named John Dennis was becoming fairly prominent in the English theater scene. One of the plays he wrote needed something to simulate the sound of thunder, so Dennis went home & invented something that would do just that. It worked beautifully, but the play didn’t. It tanked, & the theater pulled it from its schedule. Unfortunately for Dennis, that also meant that nobody would get to witness his great new sound effect, or so he thought.

Some time went by, & while seeing a production of Macbeth in the same theater, Dennis heard a very familiar sound- one that sounded just like thunder. After he checked it out, he confirmed his fear that the theater had stolen his artificial thunder idea & let the production of Macbeth use it.  Dennis realized that because Shakespeare’s Macbeth is one of the most famous plays ever written, the theater would get all the credit for his invention. While seated during the play, he is reported to have leaned to the person next to him & said, “That is my thunder, by God; the villains will play my thunder, but not my play.”

Eventually, the story spread & the incident turned into the expression.

There you go. Now you know. You’re welcome.

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Voyager’s Incredible… Uh… Voyage: The Road to Jupiter

Well, it’s that time again. Here’s this week’s Bill’s Bologna.

I’m sure all of you have read the mass of articles about NASA’s announcement that Voyager 1 is now in interstellar space.

I know I spoke briefly about the Voyager probes in my 2 part You Won’t Believe How Fast it Goes post, but I’ll go into more detail here & in next week’s post. I’ll give you a little history of Voyager 1’s 36 year journey & what it has done along the way.

Okay let’s start with the basics. This is Voyager 1:

Painting of one of the Voyager probes passing Jupiter. Currently. Voyager I is the farthest man made object in the solar system & it's moving at about 39,000mph.

(Photo used courtesy of NASA)

It’s part of the Voyager program, which includes 2 spacecraft.  The other one launched, as you can imagine, is named Voyager 2. The ultimate goal of the Voyager Program was to conduct the Planetary Grand Tour, or the exploration of the outer planets &the documentation of what can be found beyond that.  Both are equipped with an array of instruments built into the spacecrafts for the scientific teams to use. You can find a list of the 5 biggest ones here, at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s site. Because both Voyager spacecrafts were designed to travel to distances where information could take immense amounts of time to reach Earth, the data they collect are recorded onto a magnetic tape & transmitted later, when it’s convenient for the scientists.

Since the Voyager probes were designed for deep space travel, a committee headed by Carl Sagan included golden phonograph records with each. The records contain friendly greetings, recorded in 55 different languages, traditional & popular music from around the world (including Chuck Berry’s “Johnny B. Goode”) & various sounds from nature. Along with the record, is a diagram instructing any being who might find it how to play it back. Carl Sagan’s view on this was that any other civilization smart enough to figure out the instructions & listen to our messages with interest is a civilization intelligent enough to find us on the map & contact us back.


The Golden Record from the Voyager probes  .
(Photo used courtesy of NASA.)

Sagan’s group also included over a hundred images of plants, animals, natural wonders from around the world & the for our fellow space travelers to study.

So, now that you have a grasp on what the actual craft was about, let’s talk about the trip.

Voyager 1 was launched on September 5, 1977. The launch took place 16 days after the launch of Voyager 2, which may not sound like it makes sense, but it does. Voyager 1 was sent to Jupiter on a quicker trajectory, meaning it could overtake its counterpart’s path & on December 19 of the same year, it did just that. A little over a year later, in January of 1979, Voyager 1 reached Jupiter, when it started the its mission with the planet.  Voyager 1 immediately started snapping  amazing photos of the planet & its moons. It regularly discover new things, from the onset of its exploration, up to its closest approach to the planet, at 220,000 miles (closer than our Moon is to Earth). After taking a photo of Jupiter’s moon, Io, the craft transmitted evidence of something previously unknown to anyone: Io is actively volcanic.


When scientists studied this photo, they noticed a white splotch on the surface of the planet. Upon taking a detailed look, they realized it was a giant volcano.
(Photo used courtesy of NASA)

Jupiter, being the most massive planet & second most massive object in the Solar System has a lot of gravity. You know how the Moon’s gravity pulls on the oceans to create tides? Well, scientists have since figured out that Jupiter’s gravity acts on Io’s crust in the exact same way. Since Jupiter is vastly larger than our moon, it’s gravity exerts tidal forces which stretch & compress Io as it nears & draws away from the planet. In fact, the surface of Io can be pulled by over 300 feet. This stretching of the moon creates a lot of friction, which, in turn, creates heat. That leads to Io being the most volcanically active body in the Solar System. It’ll never cool, because it’s stuck being stretched like a rubber band in Jovian orbit.

Although it didn’t spend too much time there, Voyager 1 made another important discovery about another moon, Europa. Scientists have since figured out that Europa is undergoing some of the same tidal forces Io is. Europa is thought to be made of water ice, frozen to about -260F or -160C . The theory here is that if the tidal forces are strong enough to melt rock on Io, then they should be able to warm up & melt the ice on Europa. Why is that significant? Liquid water leads to life. Even after being warmed to melt, the water is going to be extremely cold, but life is resilient. Organisms on Earth live in the coldest depths of Antarctic oceans & lakes, so just maybe on Europa…
We’ll just have to wait to land there someday first.


Europa as photographed from Voyager 1: Note how it isn’t cratered. This suggests that liquid water regularly resurfaces the moon. Those lines are thought to be stretch marks from the tidal forces that melt the ice.
(Photo used courtesy of NASA)

After discovering a wealth of information about Jupiter & its moons during the flyby, Voyager 1 headed out on its almost two year trip to Saturn.

This feels like a good place to put a bookmark. Next week, we’ll cover Saturn & what’s been happening since then. I can’t leave you without showing you that famous picture of Jupiter’s massive storm system, the Great Red Spot though, so here you go:


Voyager snapped this shot of the Great Red Spot, a storm so big, the entire Earth could fit inside…
3 times.
(Photo used courtesy of NASA)

For now, though, now you know; you’re welcome.

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Running Amok: A Coked out Rampage

When someone is acting crazy or panicking, we say that they’re running amok. The roots of this expression come from the peak of British colonization, during 18th & 19th centuries.

First, in order to give you an understanding of everything, I need to give you a brief history of the Opium Wars.

See, back in the day, the British Empire had colonies across almost the entire planet. They used to say, “The sun never sets on the British Empire,” & that was pretty much the truth. The Crown needed a way to keep a watchful eye on all its subjects, but had a tough time doing so because the military was thinly stretched out almost everywhere. In order to keep tabs, the British government was very ruthless & it stooped to some pretty dirty strategies.

One of these strategies was the distribution of what are now considered illegal drugs. One of the most famous instances (Note how I didn’t say, “first,” or, “only.”) of the British using drugs to get their way was when they wanted to monopolize the tea trade & China refused to let them.  See, the British government exported drugs, which were then legal, to the Chinese in exchange for the tea. When opium & cocaine started to become addictive problems for the Chinese, their government put heavy restrictions on the inflow of the substances.

Now, the British didn’t like this because, hey, they loved their tea & weren’t getting nearly as much of it. What did they do? They smuggled drugs illegally into Chinese ports, flooding the population with opium & cocaine.  The Chinese  knew what the British were up to & weren’t about to take it lying down, so they stopped the outflow of tea. The British then retaliated by blockading the port of Hong Kong, until the Chinese were forced to use their navy to try to stop it. Here’s where it gets messed up . This was the plan the whole time.  See, they correctly anticipated that a massive chunk of the Chinese population, including the sailors, would be hopeless addicts by the time the first shots were fired & that they, themselves wouldn’t be. They quickly defeated the Chinese navy (The sailors were too busy being jittery & paranoid, or slumped against a ship’s mast in a euphoric heap, to fight)  in the First Opium War & seized Hong Kong & by default, the tea trade. Messed up, huh?


This is pretty much what happened before the English took over Hong Kong. Note the one warship successfully taking on the 7 Chinese Junks full of opium loving sailors.
(This image is in the public domain in the U.S. The copyright has expired, because it was first published prior to January 1, 1923.)

Okay, so I know that was a long story & I also know it doesn’t seem to have much to do with the phrase “running amok”. I promise it does & that I told you that story to tell you this one:

About 50 years before all of that, the English military started to make a presence in Indonesia. Fast forward to the Opium Wars & they now have a smart, yet dirty way of controlling their colonies. Guess whose population quickly became drug addicts?

The addicts included one tribe in particular, which was already known for its warrior spirit (This warrior spirit is also known as regressing into a blind rage & indiscriminately butchering men, women & children from captured villages). Even on their home turf, members of this tribe would become possessed by the spirit without any warning whatsoever, buy a weapon from a local market, & flip out & kill everyone. They referred to this fighting spirit as mengamuk The rough translation is, “to make a furious and desperate charge.” People possessed by the spirit were called Amuco. As you can imagine, a tribe on insane amounts of uppers, which already poses a threat because of its ruthless brutality in combat & for random public killing sprees before getting their hands on cocaine, wound up scaring the crap out of the colonial soldiers. The English Regulars were understandably quite intimidated by the Amuco & rumors started flying about these super coked-out warriors. In true colonial fashion, they bastardized the actual word & replaced it with an Anglicized version that’s easier to say.

So, when you say someone is running amok, you’re actually implying that they’re an indiscriminately murderous drug using, spree killing warrior.
…I mean, I guess if you dropped the warrior part, you’d be kind of right, if you were talking about someone crazed out on bath salts, right?

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Cloud 9: The Most Comfortable Cloud of All

It’s Monday again, & that means it’s time for another installment of Bill’s Bologna.

Cloud 9 is a popular expression we use to describe feelings of euphoria. It’s such a popular phrase, even the great George Harrison released a song called “Cloud 9” as the title track to his 1987 release.


Cloud 9. You know, the one where George looks all cool with his shades & Gretsch Duo Jet on the cover.

A few weeks ago, I started reading A Short History of Nearly Everything by Bill Bryson. It’s exactly what the title says it is: a book full of facts about the history of the entire Universe, & what transpired down here on Earth that allowed us humans to be here today. It’s an amazing book & if you’re a science nerd like I am & love facts & concepts, but would wind up blowing up a billion dollar NASA rocket because you forgot to carry the 2, then this is the book for you. Even if you can pull off the math, unlike yours truly, I think you’ll love this book.

Anyway, while I’d love to rave about it a little more, that’s not why I’m here.

While I was reading, I came across his passage about weather systems & he explained one of the origins of the term.

Bryson writes about a man named Luke Howard. Howard was an amateur meteorologist who wrote the first edition of the Cloud Atlas at the turn of the 19th Century. If you Google Cloud Atlas, you’ll no doubt get a bunch of info on the recent novel & movie, which have absolutely nothing to do with what we’re talking about here. Actually, you know what? Don’t even click the link.

Anyway, The Cloud Atlas that Howard started still is used as an extensive catalog of different types of clouds & what they do. It’s been greatly expanded & updated since Howard started it, but the original names he coined (cumulus, cirrus, nimbus & stratus) for these clouds have remained the four main families into which the types of clouds are sorted.

One of the additions to the atlas was the cumulonimbus cloud. It was added sometime in the 1880’s.


Cumulonimbus: See how comfortable it looks? Too bad you’d fall right through & be struck by lightning on the way down…

These clouds lie in the layer of the Earth’s atmosphere called the Troposphere, which extends from the ground, up to about 50,000ft. Cumulonimbus clouds can have bodies reaching all the way to the top of the Troposphere, but aren’t strong enough to break through the Tropopause, or the boundary between the troposphere & the next layer, called the Stratosphere. Because of this, the top of the cloud hits the Tropopause & flattens out, giving it its familiar anvil shape. It looks like a soft platform, which you could stand on or comfortably stretch out on, right? Well, guess what number cumulonimbus is in the Cloud Atlas.

It’s number 9.


Cloud 9: Cumulonimbus as seen from above. “Cumulonimbus” comes from the Latin words, “cumulus” & nimbus”, which mean “heap” & “rain” respectively.

Another accepted explanation is given on . It hypothesizes that the expression comes from Dante, author of the Divine Comedy. The final volume, The Paradiso, or The Paradise, describes the 10 levels of Heaven. According to Dante, humans can only reach the 9th level of Heaven because the 10th & best is reserved for God. When most people think of Heaven, they think of clouds. Boom: Cloud 9.

In his book, Dictionary of Word and Phrase Origins, Nigel Rees claims that the phrase didn’t actually become popular until a radio show in the 1950’s found out the US Weather Bureau was using the Cloud Atlas system & combined it to make a quick joke referencing Dante’s Paradise. In the broadcast, the hero became knocked out & woke up on Cloud 9.

Another explanation involves Buddhism & how according to that belief, Cloud 9 is one step away from reaching Nirvana. Most think this isn’t true because Buddhist monks tend to view Cloud 9 as no more important than any other step along the path to Enlightenment.

So there you have it. There are more than a few possibilities as to how the term, “Cloud 9” made it into pop culture. You decide which one is right.

Now you know. You’re welcome.

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The Daily Rat Race: Running After That Cheese

Well, it’s Monday & that means it’s time for another installment of Bill’s Bologna. Since it’s Labor Day, I thought I’d talk about an expression that we associate with work.

This will be quick because the answer is pretty straightforward.

I think I can say quite confidently that most people would rather be doing something other than work, which is why we can be thankful for days like Labor Day. Of course, when the three day weekend is done, we have to get back to the rat race.

This comes from lab rats. See aside from doing awful things like spreading plague & jumping at you from behind trashcans, rats are used in labs. Scientists perform tests on these rats by putting them in running wheels. They run, chasing their reward, but never getting anywhere.

It’s pretty pessimistic, but a lot of people spend their weekdays working hard for promotions or raises they’ve been promised. Of course, those routines can become fairly tedious & repetitive. Some people have been waiting for a while & can draw the cynical connection to being a rat in a wheel.

Just remember, no matter how mundane your job can be, you still aren’t running on a wheel, with some new trial perfume being sprayed in your eyes, all while trying to get your cheese on a string… or whatever.

Now you know. You’re welcome.
I told you it was going to be quick. Now, GET BACK TO WORK!

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